2017年11月28日星期二

Residual Heat Utilization of Refractory Gas Burning Kiln

Refractory
Refractory
With the gradual implementation of the national environmental protection policy, the original domestic coal-fired kiln in the refractory industry is about to end its historical mission and replace it with clean natural gas, liquefied gas, light diesel oil, city gas and producer gas as the main New energy kiln. However, China is a large coal producing country, and refractory material are also large energy-hungry households. Some medium-to-low-grade refractories and large-volume refractories are still controlled by the furnace hot gas to ensure fuel supply and production cost control . As a result, the refractory industry has also developed a hot gas tunnel kiln, hot gas intermittent plutonium kiln group, hot gas intermittent shuttle kiln group.
Due to the different kiln body structure and thermal engineering process, intermittent kiln produces 5 times more flue gas than continuous kiln production. In general, the higher the gas temperature, the greater the proportion of heat loss. If the gas temperature is 1093 ℃, the heat loss reaches 55%; when the gas temperature is 1427 ℃, the heat loss reaches 70%. For the firing of refractory hot gas intermittent inverted kiln, according to the relevant experimental data show that: flue gas away from the kiln away from the heat about the furnace total heat expenditure of 35% to 40% in the absence of any heat recovery In the case of the measure, the heat balance calculation results, the thermal efficiency is only 10% ~ 15%. This is a big heat loss. Therefore, the use of flue gas heat is a very important energy recovery.
Set the heat exchanger in the flue is an important means of waste heat recovery. The hot air obtained after the heat exchange can be directly sent to the burner for combustion air, or the hot air can be diluted to the drying medium of the product embryo drying kiln or used to make the thermal efficiency of the kiln reach 30% or higher.
When the firing system uses a heat exchanger to preheat the air and use this hot air to make the combustion-supporting combustion air, the thermal efficiency of the kiln can be improved, the fuel consumption can be reduced, and the energy-saving effect can be achieved. And in the organization of high temperature combustion flame temperature can increase, increase heating efficiency, shorten the heating time (firing cycle). And because the hot air volume expansion, resulting in the burner orifice flow rate increases, accelerating the kiln gas circulation, contribute to the kiln temperature uniformity. The data show that: when the preheated air temperature reaches 220 ~ 250 ℃, can reduce fuel consumption by 6% to 8%. At the same time different combustion temperature, the impact on the flame temperature is very large. Even when the gas is not preheated, the combustion temperature of the gas increases significantly as the preheating temperature of the combustion air increases. This not only can solve the problem of low firing temperature, but also plays an important role in saving energy and reducing consumption.
In intermittent kiln production, because the fuel is changed with the heating stage, the amount of flue gas generated by the fuel also changes. In the event of a large fire, since the amount of fuel per unit time increases, the flue gas and temperature also inevitably increase. Preheat air combustion just to meet the requirements of combustion. Metal pipe heat exchangers are commonly used in production. Due to the limitations of high temperature oxidation and mechanical properties, the maximum service temperature is generally limited to below 500 ° C because of their low life (about 0.5 years). Metal pipe aluminum treatment, its service life is only about a year. The use of heat-resistant stainless steel or heat-resistant cast iron, the maximum temperature is generally limited to below 900 ℃. However, due to its high price, the use of units unbearable.  1. Because the fuel is the producer gas, the chimney bricks will not block. Life can be more than 10 years. Designed to ensure that the heat transfer efficiency, heat transfer area as large as possible (such as a group of 4 × 200m3 Square inverted hearth heat exchange area of ??about 230m2), although the volume is large, but the site conditions permit a one-time investment in the province, the flue System resistance is generally about 147 ~ 196Pa, chimney can be selected according to the height (usually about 50m).

The use of heat exchanger temperature is a very important factor in heat recovery. If the flue gas temperature is 1315 ℃, the use of thermal efficiency of 60% ceramic heat exchanger can save about 48% of fuel, if the use of thermal efficiency of 60% metal heat exchanger, you must first add cold air flue gas temperature dropped to 815 ℃ below, so that only 24% of fuel savings. Table 1 shows the effect of blending cold air on fuel economy.

In order to play the respective advantages of ceramic and metal heat exchangers, the two are used in tandem, known as a hybrid heat exchanger. First high-temperature flue gas into the ceramic heat exchanger, flue gas temperature dropped to below 815 ℃, and then into the metal heat exchanger. The flow of cold air is first into the metal heat exchanger, the heated air and then into the ceramic heat exchanger for further heating, the final preheated air temperature up to 1093 ℃.

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Application of Dry Sludge in Refractory for Blast Furnace

blast furnace refractory
blast furnace refractory
Blast furnace refractories are often used stemming, commonly used is a water cannabis mud, but when the steel production is high, this iron mouth stem mud is more susceptible to mechanical scouring and chemical erosion of slag iron, resulting in blast furnace slag Not a net, not only affect the smooth and high yield blast furnace, but also prone to iron in the refractory brick process of iron off, leading to runway accidents caused by heavy run. At the same time as Tietou tide, prone to playing Tietou "rocket" burns and other accidents.
The main production of anhydrous stemming ingredients ratio (%): Brown Iron Jade 15-24, 6-15 silicon carbide, coke 20, lime 12-16, tar 18-20. The gun mud compressive strength of 20Mpa, open the mouth opening in the blast furnace refractory openings easy, and anti-erosion performance is better.
The key component of lime mud is too large, will cause mud shrinkage is too large, resulting in cracks, too small, affect the mud plasticity, in the amount of stemming on the basis of 12%, and gradually found in the burn line changes Is +0.3%, the best performance, high plasticity at the moment, when there is good micro-expansion at high temperature tapping, no cracks, effective from the no swelling, cracks caused by channeling iron, , The risk of burned stave in severe cases.
Key components of low, medium temperature sintering agent added in a large amount, will have an impact on the stability of the iron, sintering agent added to the stemming at low temperature to generate low-melt, so anti-erosion ability of stemming deteriorated, splashing spatter . Found that when the ratio of 2.5%, when dealing with the iron mouth, than the water cannons save 25min time, and does not affect the trenches processing, tapping, the iron flow stability.
The above anhydrous mud in the domestic water heaters No. 1 and No. 2 blast furnace used, compared with the same period of water mud, blast furnace technical indicators are as follows: Tiekou pass rate increased by 2%, the punctuality rate rose 6.6%, iron content Poor pass rate rose 8%, iron mouth tapping wind rate decreased 96%, increase once a day tapping, blast furnace operation safety factor has also been improved. The development and application of this anhydrous stem mud has been extremely successful, contributing to the steady and high yield of refractories for blast furnaces.

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2017年11月23日星期四

Analysis of the reasons of damaged blast furnace lining fire brick

blast furnace refractory lining material
blast furnace refractory lining material
1.Temperature.

The damaged performance of high temperature to fire brick:
(1)Erosion. When the edge air develops excessively, but the factory uses poor quality refractory material which has lower refractoriness under load, if the high temperature is over than allowable temperature, the fire lining brick will be eroded.
(2)Heat stress.
(3)Thermal shock. Thermal shock is a phenomenon when the fire brick meet the unsteady thermal stress and then become damaged.Cracks will occur in the refractory bricks and eventually broken.

2.Mechanical erosion and abrasion

3.Chemical attack

4.One of the important factors of firebrick refractory sale lining damage is unreasonable design, construct and furnace structure. Poor quality refractory and furance construction create the condition for the first kind of destructive factors.

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Factors affecting service life of converter

converter refractory
converter refractory
Factors that affect converter life:

1. Composition of slag. For every 1% increase in iron oxide, the service life of the lining is reduced by 18-20 times; the higher the MgO content in the slag, the lower the erosion of the lining. At present, the iron oxide content of slag is 18-24%.

2. Tapping temperature. The higher the tapping temperature, the shorter the service life. Therefore, the tapping temperature refractory material properties of the converter should be properly controlled.

3. Smelting time. Long smelting time, will speed the erosion of the lining up.

4. Lining structure. As the various parts of the converter are in different damage conditions, so it should adopt the integrated masonry method.

5. Furnace maintenance. For back and forth, regularly repair with hot self-flow repair materials.

6. Influence of converter blowing. Nitrogen gas, carbon dioxide, argon or oxygen are blown into the furnace through the purging plug placed at the bottom of the converter to enhance the mixing of the molten pool, thus shortening the steel making time, improving the quality of molten steel and reducing the cost of steel making. But the blown also speed the erosion of refractory materials up, resulting in increased consumption of refractory materials.

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2017年11月2日星期四

How to extend the life of refractory materials

refractory materials
refractory materials
How to extend the life of refractory materials. Generally divided into kiln kiln is divided into four bands, namely, decomposition zone, transition zone, firing zone and cooling zone. Four belt, firing with kiln lining the most critical, at home and abroad in the pre-decomposition kiln burning with the main use of alkaline refractory brick.
Thermal, mechanical and chemical factors contribute to the stress in the kiln lining and cause damage. With the kiln, operation and kiln lining in the kiln position of the different factors of the damage is also different. Which decisive role is the flame, kiln and kiln body deformation, they make the kiln bearing a variety of different stress.
For alkaline tiles, there are eight kinds of destructive factors, namely clinker melt infiltration, agglomeration of volatile components, reduction or reduction - oxidation, overheating, thermal shock, thermal fatigue, extrusion and grinding. However, these eight factors have different effects on the damage of different refractory brick lining in kiln, and the mechanism of damage to alkaline brick is described in this paper.
1, clinker melt infiltration:
Clinker melt mainly from the kiln and fuel, infiltration phase is mainly C2S, C4AF. The infiltration of C2S and C4AF in the metamorphic layer strongly dissolves magnesia and chrome ore in magnesia carbon bricks, precipitates secondary silicates such as CMS and magnesium rose pyroxene (C3MS2), and sometimes even precipitates potassium Stone; and the melt will be filled with brick lining pores, so that part of the brick layer of dense and embrittlement; combined with thermal stress and mechanical stress dual role, resulting in easy cracking refractory brick peeling. Due to C2S, C4AF above 550 ℃ began to form, and pre-decomposition kiln into the kiln material temperature has reached 800 ℃ ~ 860 ℃, so clinker melt penetration throughout the pre-decomposition kiln, the clinker melt on the pre-decomposition Kiln lining with a certain infiltration into the erosion effect.
2, the condensation of volatile components:
Pre-decomposition kiln, alkaline sulphate and chloride and other components volatile agglomeration, repeated circulation, resulting in the accumulation of these components in raw materials. By the production practice, the R2O, SO3 and CI- contents of the raw material in the warmest preheater of the kiln are often increased to 5 times, 3 to 5 times and 80 to 100 times respectively higher than that of the raw material. When the hot material enters the third part of the kiln cylinder (800 ° C to 1200 ° C), the volatile components in the material will aggregate in all the brick and brick layers, And the erosion of the adjacent components other than magnesite, resulting in brick thermal penetration stability of the infiltration layer is significantly reduced, the formation of expansion of potassium nepheline, garnet, the refractory brick lime damage, and thermal - mechanical stress Under the combined action of peeling off. The more the depth of the kiln lining is affected by the alkali salt, Selection.
3, reduction or reduction - oxidation reaction:
When the thermal system in the kiln is unstable, it is easy to produce the reduction flame or the incomplete combustion, so that the Fe3 + reduction or Fe2 + in the magnesia-chrome brick shrinks, and the migration and diffusion of Fe2 + in the magnesite crystal is stronger than Fe3 + More, which further exacerbated the volume shrinkage effect, so that the brick hole, the structure weakened, the intensity decreased. At the same time, the reduction of the kiln gas and the alternating atmosphere of the oxidation of the shrinkage and expansion of the volume effect occurs repeatedly, the brick will produce chemical fatigue. This process mainly occurs in the absence of kiln protection of magnesium chrome brick.
4, overheating:
When the kiln heat load is too high, so that the brick surface for a long time to lose the protection of the kiln, the hot surface layer of the matrix at high temperature melting and moving to the cold layer direction, leaving the brick lining layer of dense, hot surface layer is loose Porous (generally easy to occur in the firing area of ​​the firing zone), which is not resistant to abrasion, shock, vibration and thermal fatigue, easy to damage.
5, thermal shock:
When the kiln is not working properly or kiln leather is unstable, the alkaline tiles are susceptible to thermal shock. Kiln of the sudden collapse of the brick surface temperature caused by a sudden surge (or even up to thousands of degrees), leaving the brick to produce a lot of thermal stress. In addition, the frequent opening and closing of the kiln to produce alternating alternating heat within the brick. When the thermal stress, once beyond the structural strength of the brick lining, the brick suddenly cracks, and along the structure of the weakening of the Department continue to deepen the deepening, and finally the brick fragmentation. When the kiln skin falls, the broken brick in the hot surface layer is taken to keep the brick from damage. The thermal shock phenomenon can easily occur in the transition zone near the kiln.
6, thermal fatigue:
In the kiln operation, when the brick lining is not in the material layer, the surface temperature is lowered, and when the brick lining is exposed to the flame, the surface temperature is increased. Kiln each turn a week, brick lining surface temperature rise and fall range of up to 150 ℃ ~ 230 ℃, the impact of depth 15mm ~ 20mm. Such as pre-decomposition kiln speed of 3r / min, this periodic temperature rise and fall of up to 130,000 times per month. This repeated temperature rise and fall causes the thermal fatigue of the surface layer of the alkaline brick to accelerate the peeling of the brick.
7, squeeze:
Rotary kiln operation, the kiln refractory lining material by the pressure, tension, torque and shear mechanical stress, such as the combined effect. Among them, the rotation of the kiln, the oval of the kiln and the kiln fall, the bricks are subjected to the dynamic load; the weight of the refractory brick and the kiln and the thermal expansion of the brick itself make the brick bear the static load. In addition, between the lining brick and the kiln body, the relative movement between the brick lining and the brick lining, and the welds on the retaining ring and the kiln body, will cause the brick lining to withstand various mechanical stresses. When all these stresses exceed the structural strength of the brick, the brick is cracked. This phenomenon occurs in the kiln lining of the precalciner kiln.
8, wear:
Pre-decomposition kiln kiln discharge area without kiln leather protection, and clinker and large kiln leather and hard, will be on the part of the brick lining, resulting in more serious impact and abrasion damage.
In short, the impact of kiln lining consumption of more factors, but also more complex, and only continue to explore, the use of new technologies, new materials, improve the operation and management level, in order to achieve both reduce consumption, but also the kiln system balanced and stable operation.
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Principle of Selection of Refractories for Cement Kiln

refractory material
refractory material
Preheat zone and decomposition zone
The temperature of these two places is relatively low,  refractory material requiring brick lining of the thermal conductivity is small, good wear resistance, in this area from raw materials, fuel sulfuric acid base and chlorinated alkali began to evaporate, in the kiln condensation and enrichment, and infiltration brick internal. Ordinary clay brick and alkali reaction to form kaolinite and garnet, so that the brick surface crisp, brick body expansion caused by cracking peeling. And containing Al2O3 25% ~ 28% and SiO2 65% ~ 70% of the alkali-resistant or alkali-resistant insulation brick at a certain temperature and alkali reaction, the brick surface immediately formed a layer of high viscosity glaze layer, to prevent the Peeling, but this brick can not resist the use of more than 1200 ℃ temperature. So the preheating zone is generally combined with high alumina refractory bricks, anti-peeling high alumina bricks or resistant to alkali brick.
Decomposition with the general use of anti-peeling good high alumina brick, silicon brick in the performance is better than the anti-peeling good high alumina brick, life than peeling off the high alumina brick about twice as high, but the price is higher, kiln The tail feed should be made of anti-crusted silicon carbide castable.
Transition zone and firing zone
Transition zone kiln leather is unstable, require kiln lining resistance to climate change ability, good thermal shock resistance, thermal conductivity is small, wear. Foreign recommended magnesium aluminum spinel brick, but the thermal conductivity of the brick, the cylinder temperature is high, the relative heat consumption is large, is not conducive to reducing energy consumption. Domestic silicon Mo brick thermal conductivity is small, wear, its performance to a certain extent, comparable with imported materials.
Burning zone with high temperature, intense chemical reaction, requiring brick lining anti-clinker erosion, anti-SO3, CO2 capacity. Foreign generally use magnesium aluminum spinel brick, but the brick hanging kiln skin is more difficult, and dolomite brick thermal shock resistance is not good, easy to hydrate; foreign magnesium iron spinel brick in the hanging kiln skin effect is better , But the cost is too high. The use of new low-chromium perovskite composite spinel brick use is better.
Cooling belt and kiln mouth
Cooling zone and kiln temperature as high as 1400 ℃ or so, the temperature fluctuations, clinker grinding and air erosion are very serious. Requirements of brick lining of the thermal conductivity is small, wear resistance, thermal shock resistance; good thermal shock resistance of alkaline bricks, such as spinel brick or high alumina brick for cooling zone. Foreign generally recommended the use of spinel brick, but the spinel brick thermal conductivity, and wear resistance is not good. Most of the domestic use in recent years, silicon-resistant brick and anti-peeling good wear-resistant brick.
Kiln parts of the use of good resistance to thermal shock castable. Such as: wear-resistant heat-resistant high-alumina brick or steel fiber toughened castables and low-cement high-alumina refractory castable, but the kiln temperature is very high in the large kiln is the use of ordinary, or steel fiber toughening Of the corundum castable.
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2017年10月30日星期一

Refractory materials for coke ovens

Refractory materials
Refractory materials
Coke oven is the technical equipment of coking plant, is a complex and continuous production of thermal equipment, mainly by the combustion chamber, carbonization room, regenerative, roof, chute, small flue and other components. Its purpose is in the isolated air conditions, the coal heated to 950 ~ 1100 ℃, after dry distillation to obtain coke and other by-products.
At present, the life of a coke oven is generally 25 to 30 years, the use of refractories mainly silica brick, clay brick, high alumina refractory bricks. The environmental conditions of the various parts of the coke oven and the requirements for refractory materials are as follows:
Carbonization chamber and partition wall of combustion chamber
The partition wall acts to heat the heat and isolate the furnace gas and support the load. Coke coking temperature is generally 950 ~ 1050 ℃, in order to ensure coking, coke oven wall carbonization chamber side of the surface temperature should be heated to 1100 ~ 1450 ℃; carbonization chamber side of the wall to be thrusting wear; due to coal dry distillation, coking The process in the isolated air conditions, the requirements of the wall air tightness, high temperature airtight, does not occur shrinkage deformation, product shape regular, accurate size to ensure that the small cracks and not cause cracks in the cracks; carbonization chamber in the coking process There is water discharge, the combustion of indoor combustion products contain a small amount of water, and because of coal salt chemical erosion and gas decomposition and carbon deposition, may damage the walls of the organization and performance, strength decreased.
Based on the above characteristics, carbonization chamber and combustion chamber with refractory materials, the world's coke oven almost all use silicon brick. Silica brick compared with other refractories, in the range of 700 ~ 1450 ℃ within the product changes and thermal conductivity of the small changes in its high temperature strength is high, the load softening temperature and its similarity (1620 ~ 1660 ℃), wear resistance, It is not easy to hydrate. With the large-scale coke oven and strengthen the production needs, can also be used thermal conductivity, volume stability, high temperature strength are high silicon carbide refractories. But the price is expensive, in the oxidative atmosphere easily oxidized damage, so the curtain wall is rarely used. And the incorporation of metal oxide high-density high thermal conductivity of silicon brick, wall thickness can be reduced, the intensity of heat transfer, improve the productivity of coke oven, but also improve the furnace life.

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Refractory materials for iron and steel smelting

Refractory materials
Refractory materials
Blast furnace refractories:
The development of blast furnace ceramic cups is becoming more and more common, but the need for high corrosion resistance refractory applications to ensure the extension of its service life. In addition to changes in design, refractory material also has a great change, such as micro-porous carbon refractory brick instead of the past, ordinary carbon block to reduce the penetration of molten iron. Used clay refractory bricks as raw materials can better meet the requirements of the use of iron mouth guns. The use of grouting method to repair the blast furnace backing can effectively prevent the erosion of the hot air flow, thereby extending the life of blast furnace lining.
Refractory for converter:
In the aspect of converter steelmaking, a water cooling technology and suspension system are respectively applied in the upper cone and lower barrel parts of the converter shell, thereby reducing the deformation of the converter furnace, prolonging the life of the converter lining and improving the converter productivity. The application of these new technologies has had a certain impact on the use of refractories. So that the converter furnace age increased to an average of 4000 furnace or more, combined with the spray, high lime and dolomite applications and slag splashing furnace technology applications, furnace age more than 10,000 times is not a problem. It is worth the attention of refractory producers to the direction of development.
Continuous submerged nozzle:
Due to the development of the continuous casting system, the tundish has changed from the past transit station to the present metallurgical container which affects the quality of cast steel and improves the productivity of cast steel. Therefore, many functional materials are gradually used in tundish, such as slag weir, impact plate, filter, blowing argon breathable plug and so on.
Immersion nozzle as an important function of continuous casting refractory material, the research carried out mainly in two aspects, one is to improve the slag line parts of the anti-erosion, the second is to reduce the wall of Al2O3 adhesion. The measures to increase the ZrO2 content to 88% and to optimize the particle size distribution can reduce the thermal expansion and porosity of the product and improve the density to improve the slag resistance.
In addition, we should pay close attention to the technological progress of the user industry, such as the recent years of the emergence of direct reduction of iron, and DC arc furnace steel and other new technology on the new requirements of refractories.

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2017年10月23日星期一

Furnace with the overall refractory

Furnace with the overall refractory
Furnace with the overall refractory
Rolling furnace is the main business of iron and steel enterprises thermal equipment, its performance directly affect the performance of the enterprise's production and economic benefits, for the majority of thermal workers to improve the performance of the furnace and operating conditions, reduce energy consumption, improve Furnace life, extended overhaul cycle, gallbladder, and achieved encouraging results. In recent years with the mechanical and electrical, refractory materials and other new technologies and materials continue to develop, there have been different design of the regenerative heating furnace, the technical indicators compared with the traditional heating furnace has greatly improved. In the case of
At present, I am in the provision of complete sets of furnace refractories, has accumulated a wealth of practical experience, according to the user's actual use requirements, to provide a reasonable combination of refractory products, the furnace for comprehensive furnace, supporting the use of lower Cost, improve life.
To provide high quality and efficient products, and constantly develop new products, good after-sales technical services, and users work closely with the new product applications to solve the technical problems, so that the new refractory products have been successfully applied, and create economic benefits for users, we Consistent work policy; also my company's purpose.
Some of the products are listed below:
Gravity castable
In addition to the characteristics of high-performance refractory castable, its outstanding advantages are excellent construction performance, construction without vibration, can automatically flow, degassing and dense, the construction of time-saving, effort , High efficiency, to ensure the integrity of the construction body, uniformity and air tightness, in particular, to adapt to the complex structure, high quality requirements of the site, once available by the user's wide welcome. Series of self-flow castables of the technical indicators:
Chrome corundum platform refractory brick, slide brick, brick tiles
The furnace trough and tapping platform mechanical wear serious, the temperature fluctuations, high temperature, slag erosion serious, the use of the conditions are extremely harsh, often because of the material wear and tear was forced to stop production maintenance. Where the use of steel fiber reinforced castables, fused mullite tiles, water-cooled cast iron, etc., although achieved good results, but with the increase in production capacity and maintenance cycle to extend the material on the higher The request.
Platform brick, slide brick, refractory brick tiles with high strength, excellent wear resistance and anti-slag erosion strong, long life (up to 1 to 2 years) and so on.

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Refractory materials for industrial furnaces

Refractory materials for industrial furnaces
Refractory materials for industrial furnaces
Refractory materials for industrial furnaces:
High-strength lightweight clay high alumina brick, high-aluminum foam brick, poly light brick, light mullite insulation brick, heavy carburizing refractory brick, diatomaceous earth insulation brick, pearlite refractory bricks. All kinds of pit furnace, box furnace, carburizing furnace, trolley furnace, vibration furnace, steel chain plate furnace, mesh belt furnace, crucible furnace, push burning furnace, vacuum furnace, salt bath furnace with light, Heavy standard fire bricks, shaped bricks. Electric corundum furnace tube, silicon carbide furnace tube, high alumina furnace tube.
Electric radiant tube with corundum, high aluminum insulator, plug cover clip.
Electric furnace furnace with corundum silicon carbide brick, radiant furnace floor. Textile machinery singeing machine with a variety of specifications of silicon carbide fire bricks, honeycomb panels, masonry with a variety of high temperature adhesives.
Fire mud, anti-carburized mud, aluminum silicate fiber cotton, aluminum silicate fiber felt, aluminum silicate fiber board.

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2017年10月17日星期二

Characteristic Refractory Material Mud Mixing Method

Characteristics of refractory material mud mixture method is to produce special refractory products, in particular the use of gypsum injection molding, casting and injection molding molding of the mud slurry f operation method is the ingredients of various refractory raw materials, enhancers, Suspending agent, admixture and 30 ~ 40% of the clean water, while adding a wear-resistant lining in the ball mill (mixing mill), after a certain period of mixing fine grinding, made for the production of mud slurry. In the process of making mud, according to the characteristics of materials and mud pouring their own requirements, to control the density and pH of the mud.
Mud mixing method used by the main equipment are ball mill, air compressor, wet iron, mud pump, vacuum degasser and so on.
Paraffin and resin-based binder, at room temperature for the solid refractory materials (or into a sticky), at room temperature, especially law mixture, must be used to increase the method of heating.
The use of hot casting process, the use of paraffin as a binder. Due to the melting point of paraffin in the 60-80 <€, in the first paraffin heated to 100T or more and have good mobility, and then the fine powder raw materials added to the liquid paraffin, the mixing after mixing, made of slurry Wax cake for hot die casting.
The main mixing equipment for heating the mixture is a heated mixing mixer.

2017年8月28日星期一

The difference between insulation material and refractory material

refractory material
refractory material

There are many kinds of insulation products, including foam, mineral cotton products, foam glass, expanded perlite insulation products, EPS powder EPS insulation film, mineral spray cotton, foam cement insulation products. Selection of insulating materials in the construction of the common types of applications and design selection should be consistent with GB / T 17369-1998 "building insulation materials, application types and basic requirements" requirement.
In addition to the material should consider the thermal conductivity of the material, but also should consider the material of water absorption, combustion performance, strength and other indicators. The performance characteristics of different insulation materials see the corresponding classification guide.
Refractory material refractoriness of not less than 1580 ℃ of a class of inorganic non - metallic materials. Refractory degree refers to the refractory cone specimen in the absence of load conditions, resistance to high temperature effect without softening the melting of the Celsius temperature. Refractory materials are widely used in the metallurgical, chemical, petroleum, machinery manufacturing, silicate, power and other industrial fields, the largest in the metallurgical industry, accounting for 50% of the total output of 60%.
Frequently used special materials are AZS refractory brick, corundum brick, directly combined with magnesia-chrome brick, silicon carbide brick, silicon nitride combined with silicon carbide brick, nitride, silicide, sulfide, boride, carbide and other non-oxide refractories ; Calcium oxide, chromium oxide, alumina, magnesium oxide, beryllium oxide and other refractories. Frequently used insulation refractory abrasive
Refractory materials are diatomite products, asbestos products, thermal panels and so on.

Insulation material is used for building envelope or thermal equipment, the heat transfer of the material or material complex, including both insulation materials, including cold materials. Insulation brick on the one hand to meet the building space or thermal equipment, the thermal environment, on the other hand also saves energy. Therefore, some countries will be adiabatic materials as coal, oil, natural gas, nuclear energy after the "fifth largest energy." A material with a strong resistance to heat flow. Mainly used for housing construction of the wall, roof or industrial pipes, furnaces and other insulation and insulation. According to the principle of insulation is divided into:
① porous material. The gas with a small thermal conductivity is filled with adiabatic pores. Generally the air is the thermal resistance medium, mainly the fibrous aggregation organization and the porous structure material. Foam plastic insulation is better, followed by mineral fibers (such as asbestos), expanded perlite and porous concrete, foam glass.
② Reflective material. Such as aluminum foil can rely on thermal reflection to reduce radiation heat transfer, a few layers of aluminum foil or paper with a thin layer of composite structure, can also increase the thermal resistance. Insulation materials are often used in the form of loose materials, coils, plates and prefabricated blocks for the insulation and insulation of roofs, facades and floors of buildings. Can be directly masonry (such as aerated concrete) or on the roof and envelope for the core material, but also paved into the ground insulation layer. Fiber or granular insulation material can be filled in the wall, can also be sprayed on the wall, both adiabatic, sound absorption, decoration and fire and other effects.

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The use of refractory materials in the metallurgical industry

refractory materials
refractory materials
Insulation Refractory material refers to refractory materials with high porosity, low bulk density and low thermal conductivity. It features a porous structure (typically 40% to 85% porosity) and high heat insulation.

Insulation refractory material used as the furnace insulation layer, lining or insulation layer, can save fuel costs. More types, mainly light refractory products, heat insulation and refractory materials and their products.

Lightweight refractory products

The main light of silicon refractory brick, light clay brick, light high alumina brick and alumina hollow ball products. Usually the weight of light refractory products is usually 0.6-1.2g / cm3, the use of temperature is usually 900 ~ 1350 Yi. Alumina hollow ball products can be used in the following long-term use.

2 refractory fiber and its products

Refractory fiber is a fibrous refractory material, is a new type of high efficiency insulation products. The main production method of refractory fiber is melt blown method, high speed centrifugation and colloid method.

Refractory fiber The main types of aluminum silicate refractory fiber, zirconium aluminum silicate refractory fiber, high purity high alumina refractory fiber, polycrystalline mullite fiber, alumina fiber, zirconia fiber and so on. In addition for low-temperature insulation of the slag cotton, glass fiber and so on. Refractory fiber products are refractory fiber as the primary raw material, processed by the various blankets, felt, board, rope, paper and other high-temperature insulation materials.

Refractory fiber products with small bulk density, low thermal conductivity, thermal stability and resistance to mechanical sensation. Refractory fiber products only 0.1 ~ 0.2g / cm3 bulk density. With fire-resistant fiber products do kiln lining, heat loss is small, saving fuel, heating up fast, especially for intermittent work furnace. In addition, fire-resistant fiber also has a soft, easy processing, construction and other characteristics. At present, the production and use of refractory fiber has been rapid development, metallurgical and other industrial enterprises demand for refractory fiber more and more urgent. After the use of refractory fiber, the energy saving effect is obviously improved.

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2017年8月21日星期一

Solutions to improve service life of ladle slide gate plate

slide gate plate
slide gate plate
Slide gate plate is the most important part among the slide gate nozzle system, which directly control the flow of the molten steel. Due to long time contact with high temperature molten steel and frequently strong heat impact, it easily got spoiled. Following are some solutions that could promote slide gate plate service life.

1.Types of slide gate plate
It is better to use the alumina- carbon based slide gate plate, which has a good erosion and strong thermal shock resistance. Bonded with carbon material, this type of slide gate characterized with high thermal conductivity and low thermal expansion coefficient.

2.Installation of slide gate plate
Make sure the fire mortar has a suitable proportion, mixed well and suitable proportion and no impurities. Never use the dried and lumpy mortar. It is also not acceptable to mix the new mortar with the used one. Make sure the upper nozzle is clean, no any residue in refractory company slide gate frame and sliding mechanism. Before installation, make sure the slide gate are not deformed or cracked. Keep the slide gate steady and smooth during the installation, and check whether there is any bump and swing after installation.

3.Using of slide gate plate
It is better to adapt auto cast program when casting steel, do not frequently and drastically open or close the slide gate. Once in need of burn oxygen, the slide gate plate must be fully opened and discharge the slide gate sand as much as possible.

Changxing Refractory material not only provides qualified slide gate plate, but also can dispatch technician for site service. Shall be any interest, please contact us.

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Solutions to improve service life of ladle slide gate plate

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The notes for using slide gate plate

slide gate plate
slide gate plate
1.Hot mechanical damage, hot chemical erosion and misoperation are the main three reasons for the damage of slide gate plate;

2.Use alumina zirconium carbon slide gate plate, ensure slide gate plate has good erosion resistance and thermal shock resistance; use slide gate and mechanism with reasonable design and even stress distribution, the service life of slide gate plate can be effectively improved;

3.Follow the standard operation procedure during the tapping of molten steel; right and good maintenance of refractory material slide gate plate can also improve the service life of slide gate plate.

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The notes for using slide gate plate
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2017年8月14日星期一

How to Choose Refractory Bricks Used for Different Parts of Blast Furnace


Refractory Brick
Refractory Brick
How to choose refractory brick used for different parts of blast furnace?
When choosing refractory brick used for different lining parts of blast furnace, we should follow some principles. The refractory lining of every part should fit the parts thermal current intensity, so that the lining can maintain previous vertebral shape and stability under the impact of strong heat flux.

Here are some methods of selecting refractory brick for every part of furnace lining.

(1) Furnace throat. It mainly needs to withstand impact and abrasion of burden, so generally we use steel brick or water cooling steel brick for the furnace throat.

(2) The upper shaft. Plus the burden descent and ascending gas flow of scour and wear. Therefore, we should choose resistance to chemical erosion and abrasion resistance of refractory material, the most appropriate is high relative density brick, high density, high aluminum brick or phosphoric acid impregnated clay brick.

(3) The middle and lower part of furnace and furnace bosh. The main mechanism of damage is thermal shock, high temperature gas scouring, and impact of alkali metals, zinc and carbon deposition, as well as chemical erosion of the initial slag. For those three parts, we should choose refractory materials with properties of thermal shock resistance, slag erosion resistance and erosion prevention. For blast furnace whose volume is smaller than 1000m3, we can use aluminum carbon refractory bricks used in blast furnace.

(4) Furnace bosh. Hot gas erosion and iron slag erosion are the main reasons for furnace bosh damage, this part of the heat flux intensity, refractory material life not long (as long as 1 to 2 months, as short as 2 to 3 weeks), generally used in refractory degree is high, load softening temperature is high and the volume density of refractory material, such as the high aluminum brick, alumina carbon brick.

(5) Hearth tuber. This site is only in blast furnace of oxidation reaction area, high temperature from 1900 to 2400 DEG C, lining by damage caused by high temperature thermal stress. Composite brick masonry hearth tuyere zone is adopted by the modern blast furnace, material for high alumina, corundum Mo mullite; corundum and silicon nitride combined silicon carbide, useful also hot pressed carbon block.

(6) The lower part and bottom of hearth. For those two parts, we use hot pressing small carbon brick, micro porous carbon brick, and hot semi graphite carbon brick with high thermal conductivity, good resistance to penetration, good resistance to chemical erosion, low porosity and micro aperture, as well as brown corundum or gray corundum brick used for ceramic cup.


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How to Choose Refractory Bricks Used for Different Parts of Blast Furnace

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Basic properties of refractory material for steel making

refractory material
refractory material
As we all know that refractory material is of various kinds and is widely used and also of great importance in steel industry. The following are some refractories commonly used in steel industry summarized by Changxing Refractory engineers.

(1) Refractories for converter
Magnesia carbon brick is used for furnace cap, tapping converter mouth, before and after the surface, weld pool and bottom; high strength magnesia carbon brick is used for trunnion and slag line. Usually the MgO content in magnesia carbon brick is 70 ~ 75%, graphite is 16 ~ 20%, bulk density is 2.8 ~ 2.9 g/cm3, compressive strength is 25 ~ 30 MPa. The elements of high strength magnesia carbon brick are the same elements as magnesia carbon brick, but its compressive strength should be 30 ~ 42 MPa.

(2) Refractories for electric furnace
Furnace hearth, furnace slope and molten pool are overall rammed with magnesia clinker, or constructed with magnesia brick which is made of magnesia carbon brick and tar asphalt; high-quality magnesia carbon brick is used for hot and slag line area; magnesia brick and magnetite chrome brick are used for tapping hole and the two sides of furnace door; high alumina bricks or high alumina uncalcined brick are used for furnace cover.

(3) Refractories for UHP EAF
For permanent lining of ultra high power EAF, using magnesium stone; for furnace doorjamb, using magnesia chrome brick; for slag line, eccentric bottom and molten pool, using magnesia brick; for hot spots, furnace wall and tapping hole, using magnesia carbon brick; for furnace cover, using high alumina brick; for tapping hole filler, using high ankerite filling material.

According to the working conditions of various steel furnaces, it can be proved that the refractory material for steel making working circumstance is very bad. Therefore, whatever refractories are used, it must possess the following properties.
(1) High temperature resistant and high refractoriness.
(2) Erosion and erosion resistance to high temperature molten steel and slag.
(3) The steelmaking furnace works discontinuously, thus requires refractory materials for furnace with good thermal shock resistance and spalling resistance.
(4) High mechanical strength, can withstand impact of furnace tilting and furnace charge loading with no damage.

Article source:
Basic properties of refractory material for steel making

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2017年8月4日星期五

What are the refractory materials used in induction furnace

Induction furnace is more commonly used in a melting metal furnace, the current mainly used to melt molten iron, molten steel, copper, aluminum, according to the different melting products, the use of different Medium frequency induction furnace refractory lining materials.
General melting molten iron, the use of quartz sand dry vibration refractory material;
Melting molten steel, using magnesia or alumina material;
Aluminum is made of alumina or clay.
Specific to the furnace, also divided into: coil mud, mouth, mica and insulation layer, dry vibration material layer. General mouth with plastic.

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What are the refractory materials used in induction furnace

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What is refractory castable

refractory castable
refractory castable
Refractory castable is premixed combinations of refractory aggregates, matrix components or modifiers, bonding agents, and admixtures. It is classified in several ways. It is based on chemistries which separates the refractory castable based on alumina and alumino-silicate aggregates such as magnesite and dolomite.

Refractory aggregates constitute the basic skeleton of castable materials , and it is accounted for the largest amount of the formulation. Aggregates size can range from 10 mm to 300 mm. Aggregates are sized and proportioned for getting desired packing and particle distribution. Varieties of refractory material aggregates is workable. Castable is formulated based on one or combined aggregates to realize the desired chemistry, mineralogy, and physical properties.

The bonding agents used for insulating castable refractory  are varieties, including alumino-silicate castable. Calcium aluminium cement is still the main bonding agent for castable. Specialized castables have been developed for more than 20 years, by using non cement bonds such like hydratable alumina, clay, silica and alumina gels, and chemical bonds such like mono aluminum phosphate, phosphoric acid and alkali silicates. Basic castables rely on chemical or organic bonds, the most common types are alkali silicates, sodium phosphates, mineral or organic acids, and resins etc.

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What is refractory castable

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2017年7月28日星期五

Refractories for electric furnace roof

Refractories for electric furnace
Refractories for electric furnace
Electric furnace roof prefabricated with special high-alumina materials, fused corundum, chromium oxide and a variety of additives as the main refractory raw material, the prefabricated, dry and other processes from the production. With high temperature strength, anti-peeling performance and slag erosion performance, easy assembly, long service life. It is suitable for use in the top triangular area of the furnace and the working area of LF furnace.

Electric furnace cover with refractory brick require good thermal shock resistance, high temperature splash on the erosion resistance, as well as good integrity, solid structure is not crack and so on.

Electric furnace lid with refractory material development trend is: brick - prefabricated block - the overall pouring, the specific conditions of different countries, the use of materials are not the same.

For alkaline firebrick cover, electric tile with magnets. In order to ensure the stability of the furnace cover structure and reduce the deformation and peeling of magnesia, the use of iron plaster or masonry insert iron. As the metal induced current (especially high power electric furnace refractories cover), the formation of local overheating to non-magnetic steel brick, on the other hand pure magnesia brick linear expansion coefficient is too large, the amount of small.

In addition, the whole pouring the lid. The use of the overall casting furnace lid to promote the life of the furnace to further improve. After the water is cooled, the electrode is also water-cooled around the electrode, and the high-alumina ultra-low cement castable containing 3% Cr2O3 is added from the material and the stainless steel fiber is added. The furnace cover is used in the case of slightly repaired 594 furnace and service life is 4 times than before.

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Refractories for electric furnace roof

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Continuous smelting and repair of induction furnace

refractory material for induction furnace
refractory material for induction furnace
1.Continuous furnace
To reduce the repeated heat that caused by quenching furnace lining cracking, continuous smelting is very induction furnace refractory lining materials important for the extension of lining service life, it has caused attention of many users. If can not continuous use, intermediate frequency furnace in after a single use, want to join metals in furnace burden, and cover induction furnace lining material the furnace cover, it can not only give metal furnace material preheating, also can prevent the lining cracks caused by rapid cooling.

2.The Repair
(1) The intermediate frequency furnace Refractory company reach to 20 heats then need to tear down all of my throat opening, purpose is to check whether the furnace lining is drill iron, also check the dry lining loosening clearance. To repair the oven, it is best to use high metal front ring, and pay special attention to the old and new interface cleaned up. During the refractory brick next furnace operation, it should open first time below the fettling interface.
(2) The furnace mouth and throat opening is often slagging, impact erosion and burden, it need constant maintenance and repair, to ensure the normal dimensions of intermediate frequency furnace.

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Continuous smelting and repair of induction furnace

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2017年7月21日星期五

The Best Refractories for Induction Furnace -- 25+ Heats Silica Ramming Mass

Medium Frequency Induction Furnace Drying Tamp Mass
Neutral ramming mass is used for induction furnace lining with longer service life.

In recent years, silica ramming mass is widely used in induction furnace. Compared with traditional refractory lining materials, this product is of lower cost, shorter sintering time and better working condition.

To offer clients better refractory products, we have successfully developed our 25+ heats silica ramming mass. As per actual working, we summed up the refractory for sale material consumption as following. 1. First heat: 10-15mm 2. Rest heat: 3-5mm

As per our experience, we should leave 70mm as save level. So if the lining thickness is 180/300/450mm, we could promise the least service life of our refractory material to be 25 heats. If the working condition is convenient, 30-40 heats is no problem.

Furthermore, our refractory castable silica ramming mass can also be applied in tundish and ladle. Service life can namely be 48-60 hours/ 200+ heats.

Because of the great advantages as above, our silica ramming mass is very welcomed by our clients all over the world say Bangladesh, Ghana, South Africa, and Indonesia, etc. If more interests, please feel free to make us informed, our professional teams are ready to give you our reliable service. For new clients, we would offer more preferential as following. 1. Lower price trial order 2. Professional refractory technicians overseas service.

Therefore, what are you waiting for? Talk your phone and call us!

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The Best Refractories for Induction Furnace -- 25+ Heats Silica Ramming Mass

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Factors that affect the service life of induction furnace lining

Intermediate Frequency Induction Furnace Lining Material
This is acidic silica ramming mass premixed with H3BO3, widely used for the lining of Medium Frequency Induction Furnace of iron, steel, copper-aluminum and alloy industry, etc.
1.Lining thickness. As the thickness of lining goes up, the service life will be longer.
2.Tightness of lining. Normally we use puematic tamper for lining, some customers do lining manually, tightness of lining is not so good, so the service life is shorter.
3.Tapping temperature. High tapping temperature leads to short service life.
4.The sintering by the first heat is also critical for a good lining.
5.Scrape quality. If the quality of scrape is bad, it will cause more slag, which is bad for lining.
6.Scrape feeding method. Rough feeding will hurt the lining.
7.Melting time. Normally the melting time is around 1.5 hours, if longer, the service life will be shorter.
8.Try not to use iron scale for decarborization, it is very harmful for the furnace lining material.
9.Remaining thickness and ending frequency. Some customers has certain limits on this two factors, our recommendation is to listen to experienced workers.
10.Lining thickness at slag zone. Different steel plant has different working condition, so the slag zone is not the same, it is better to adjust the thickness at slag zone to increase the service life.
11.Melting better be continuous. If it is not, lining could be break by the force of thermal shock.

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Factors that affect the service life of induction furnace lining

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2017年7月11日星期二

Refractory materials for different parts of electric ARC furnace(2)

Magnesia Carbon Brick
In order to make balance the damage of the furnace wall and prolong the service life, furnace wall is also used inlaid water cooling box or water cooling measures. The inner surface of the furnace is sprayed with a layer of fire-resistant coating to make the dross form a protective layer, which can reduce the unit consumption of the refractory material. effectively. But the energy consumption is relatively increased.

(3) Refractories for bottom of electric ARC furnace
Knotted lining use good sintered magnesia or fused magnesia, there is working lining and permanent lining under the ramming layer.The working lining use tar pitch bonded magnesium refractory brick magnesia brick, and permanent lining is generally use magnesia brick. The slag line parts upper the dike slag line parts,as slag erosion is serious,now more use the lining brick what same or similar the furnace wall hot spots,such as casting magnesia-chrome brick or re-combination magnesia-chrome brick. The effect is better when use of magnesia carbon brick, the service life can be as high as 100 to 200 furnace times.

The anode end of the direct current electric arc furnace is connected with the contact piece of the furnace bottom, the bottom of furnace use thermal conductivity refractory material or metal components to solve the problem of conduction, the main requirements of the conductive refractory is low resistance (10-4 ~ 10-2 Omega . m) and the resistance must be stable, usually using combination asphalt with resin ,magnesia carbon bricks having a carbon content of preferably 10% to 18% are used as the conductive refractory, and include permanent lining, working lining and a protective coating. Working lining use magnesia ramming compound.

(4) Refractories for taphole
In 1980s, the advantages of tapping port are: The tilting electromechanical equipment has been canceled, the area of the water-cooling wall has been expanded, the damage of lining has been eased, the temperature of tapping steel can be reduced and the time of tapping can be reduced, thus reducing investment and saving electric energy. people use resin-bonded magnesia-carbon brick as taphole bricks, magnesia carbon refractory brick for sale as tube brick, and people use magnesia carbon brick or Al2O3-C-SiC brick as end brick. In order to make the melton steel flow out more successfully, usually people use olivine-based coarse sand as drainage material.

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Refractory materials for different parts of electric ARC furnace(2)

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Refractory materials for different parts of electric ARC furnace(1)

Refractory materials for electric ARC furnace
Refractory materials for different parts of electric ARC furnace
(1) Refractories for ARC furnace roof
Electric Arc Furnace life refers to the life of furnace roof. After the 1980s, with the expansion of steel-making electric arc furnace capacity and the increase of unit power, the working conditions of the furnace roof become more demanding, the refractories used for electric Arc furnace also changed.

The roof of arc furnace commonly use high alumina brick to masonry, Al2O3 content of between 75% to 85%. Compared with silica brick, the characterized of high alumina brick is high refractoriness, thermal shock resistance, good slag resistance, high compressive strength. Because of its high thermal shock resistance and structural integrity, it is not necessary to produce shaped bricks. There ie a rich bauxite resources in China, high alumina insulating brick has become the main refractory material on Arc Furnace roof, its life is 2 to 3 times of silica brick roof . With the development of large-scale ultra-high-power electric furnace, the service life of high-alumina brick is reduced, Leading to the further use of calcined or not burning magnesia brick and magnesia-chrome brick and other alkaline brick.

(2) Refractories for ARC furnace wall
The furnace wall is divided into general furnace wall, slag line area and hot spot that near the arc . The main furnace wall mainly uses the magnesia brick, the tar pitch combination and the asphalt impregnation burns the dolomite brick and the magnesite refractory brick masonry, also has uses does not burn the magnesia alkaline brick and the asphalt union magnesia and the dolomite ramming material, That all have longer service life. ARC furnace wall which Ultra-high power or smelting special steel used the magnesia-chrome brick and high-quality magnesia brick to masonry.

Slag line area and the hot spot of furnace wall is weak link. As the furnace wall life depends mainly on the degree of damage of hot spot, so the parts of lining should be special attention. the 20th century 70 years ago, the masonry of the site commonly used cast magnesium chrome bricks, combined with or re-combination of magnesia- chrome brick, the service life is 100 to 250 furnace times. Into the 80's, in these parts widely used magnesia carbon bricks
 to masonry, showing that in addition to high temperature and slag resistance performance,service life be significantly improved , the high-power electric arc furnace to more than 300 times in China.

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Residual Heat Utilization of Refractory Gas Burning Kiln

Refractory With the gradual implementation of the national environmental protection policy, the original domestic coal-fired kiln in the...